Islamic Architecture: The Architectural Wonders of the Arab World

arquitectura islámica características de la arquitectura islámica elementos de la arquitectura islámica arquitectura islámica características arquitectura civil islamica concepto de arquitectura islámica donde se ubica la arquitectura islámica
icon author Nagore Valera
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Islamic architecture, a monumental and majestic expression of Arab art, has left an indelible mark on human history.

From ornate mosques to sumptuous palaces, the architectural wonders of the Arab world are living testaments to a rich cultural and spiritual heritage.

Islamic architecture origins and location

Islamic architecture originated in the Arabian Peninsula in the 7th century with the rise of Islam under the Prophet Muhammad in the city of Mecca. From there, it spread rapidly throughout the Islamic world, encompassing areas from Spain in the west to Central Asia in the east.

The most prominent manifestations of Islamic architecture can be found in regions such as the Middle East, North Africa, Persia, and the Indian subcontinent.

“From there, it spread rapidly throughout the Islamic world, encompassing territories stretching from Spain in the west to Central Asia in the east.”

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Roof of the Mosque of Cordoba, Spain: A magnificent example of Islamic architecture in Europe, with its impressive forest of columns and horseshoe arches.

Islamic Architecture Materials and Features

Islamic architecture is characterized by the ingenious use of local materials and advanced construction techniques.

One of the most common materials used in construction was brick, especially in areas where stone was not readily available. Other materials include limestone, marble, plaster, and carved wood.

The main characteristics of Islamic art are reflected in architecture, where symmetry, geometry, and ornamentation play a key role.

Islamic buildings often feature complex geometric designs such as horseshoe arches, ribbed vaults, and bulbous domes.

Floral and calligraphic decoration is ubiquitous, with intricate details adorning every surface, from walls to ceilings.

Materials used

  1. Brick: Fundamental in construction because of its availability and ease of use. Brick buildings allow great flexibility in design, especially in the creation of arches and vaults.
  2. Stone: Used for monumental structures and mosques. Stone offers durability and a noble aesthetic; its use is common in building foundations, columns, and decorations.
  3. Wood: Used in roofs, doors, minarets, and as structural supports in buildings. Wood carving is a prominent art form in Islamic architecture, especially in decorative elements.
  4. Ceramic tiles: Ceramic tiles, with their vibrant colors and complex geometric patterns, cover walls, domes, and floors, adding rich ornamentation to buildings.
  5. Plaster: Used in both construction and decoration, plaster is molded into reliefs to create detailed wall and ceiling ornamentation, including calligraphic script and geometric motifs.
  6. Glass: In windows and lamps, glass serves both practical and decorative functions, especially through colored stained glass that filters light to create spiritual atmospheres.
La Alhambra, Granada, España: Un complejo palaciego y fortaleza que presenta una exquisita arquitectura islámica, con intrincados detalles y hermosos patios.
The Alhambra, Granada, Spain: A palace complex and fortress of exquisite Islamic architecture, with intricate details and beautiful courtyards.

Distinguishing Characteristics

  1. Arches and vaults: A prominent feature, including pointed, horseshoe, and lobed arches, as well as ribbed vaults, which are not only structural but also decorative elements.
  2. Minarets: Slender towers from which the call to prayer is made. They are iconic symbols of Islamic architecture and vary in shape and style from region to region.
  3. Iwanes: Large vaulted portals opening into a central courtyard, common in Persian Islamic architecture and used in both mosques and palaces.
  4. Central courtyard: Open space surrounded by buildings that serves as the center of community and religious life, facilitating ventilation and natural light.
  5. Islamic Calligraphy: Used as artistic decoration, calligraphy adorns walls, doors, and objects, often with verses from the Koran or poetry, reflecting the importance of the written word in Islam.
  6. Geometric and Floral Motifs: The depiction of living creatures is generally forbidden in Islamic art, leading to the development of complex geometric and floral patterns that symbolize the infinity and unity of God.

Islamic architecture influenced by religion and culture

The concept of Islamic architecture is intrinsically linked to the religion of Islam and reflects the spiritual and cultural values of the Muslim community.

In particular, mosques are the epicenter of religious and social life in Islamic communities, and their architecture reflects this.

Islamic mosques typically have a central prayer hall, known as a mihrab, facing Mecca, and a minaret from which the call to prayer is made.

In addition to religious structures, Islamic civil architecture also flourished, giving rise to palaces, fortresses, public baths (hammams), and impressive urban complexes.

These buildings served not only functional purposes, but were also expressions of political power and cultural wealth.

La Mezquita Azul, Estambul, Turquía: Una impresionante mezquita con seis minaretes y una impresionante decoración de azulejos azules, representativa de la arquitectura islámica otomana.
The Blue Mosque, Istanbul, Turkey: An impressive mosque with six minarets and stunning blue tile decoration, representative of Ottoman Islamic architecture.

Expansion of the Islamic architecture

The expansion of Islam over the centuries has resulted in the spread of Islamic architecture to various continents.

It is not limited to countries with Muslim majorities, but is also found in nations where Muslims form significant communities or have had a significant historical influence.

Here is a non-exhaustive list of regions and some of the countries involved:


  • Middle East: Iran, Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait.
  • South Asia: Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Afghanistan.
  • Central Asia: Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan.
  • Southeast Asia: Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei.


  • North Africa: Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Sudan.
  • Sub-Saharan Africa: Nigeria, Mali, Senegal (in these countries, Islamic influence is notable in certain regions).


  • Iberian Peninsula: Spain (particularly Andalusia), Portugal (historical influence, no significant current Islamic buildings).
  • Balkans: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, North Macedonia, Bulgaria, Greece (especially in its history).
  • Others: Turkey (part in Europe), Cyprus.


Caucasus region: Azerbaijan, parts of Russia (Chechnya, Dagestan), Georgia (historical influences).

The presence of Islamic architecture in a country does not automatically mean that there is a Muslim majority today, especially in countries such as Spain, where Islamic architecture (such as the Alhambra in Granada) is a remnant of its Islamic past.

Despite its wide geographical distribution, Islamic architecture is present in at least 40-50 countries, but its influence and preservation vary significantly from place to place.

If you want to know more about Arabic culture, see this article on the Arabic language for everyday use.


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Nagore ValeraNagore Valera Linkedin icon Instagram icon Email icon

Nagore Valera is a professional with more than seven years of experience in digital marketing and e-commerce, specializing in SEO and content management. She is recognized for developing and implementing effective SEO strategies and creating high-quality content that enhances online visibility and drives growth. Nagore also has experience in blog writing and developing specialized materials. Nagore has experience as an international ambassador, analyzing and improving SEO practices, promoting interdisciplinary collaboration, and enhancing the quality of digital content.


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